In the world of mountain biking, technology is constantly evolving. With new bike types and structures, it becomes easier for users to do their research and find the bikes best-suited for their budgets. The best fat bikes under 1000 give you an alternative to choose from that will ensure you have more with and durability over various terrains. The Mongoose Juneau 26-Inch Fat Tire Bike is a great bike for newcomers to consider at a reasonable price.
- Conquer any off-road trail with ease with this steel-framed mountain bike with supersized all-terrain knobby tires
- The threadless headset is adjustable for riders of different heights; For added speed and performance, the strong, lightweight alloy rims keep the weight down
However, these bikes are not as easy to choose as many might think. Aside from the variable tire sizes, there are a few additional features like the complete setup of the bike that people also need to look into. Fortunately, we have done some of the research to help ensure that you find the right bike you desire.
Best Fat Bikes Under 1000 On The Market Today
Without looking at the features, it is easy to mess up your selection and buy a bike that does not accommodate you. Before we dig into some of these features, we have isolated the top fat bikes on the market today. These bikes meet all the standards that we will set apart in the following buyer’s guide to help make the best decision.
Best Fat Bikes Under 1000: Mongoose Juneau 26-Inch Fat Tire Bike
- Fat tire bike designed for all-condition riding, including sand and snow 26-inch wheels fit riders 5'4" to 6'2" in height
- Aluminum mountain-style frame with hydro-formed tubing provides a durable, responsive ride
The best fat bike that comes onto our list is the. Made by Mongoose, the bike might slightly exceed your budget, but it features an aircraft-grade aluminum frame with hydroformed tubing. The materials keep the bike lightweight, yet it remains durable in various conditions.
- All-Terrain: One of the top features is the tires, which allows the rider to take on virtually any terrain.
- Drivetrain: Shimano has added a 16-speed drivetrain to give the bike a versatile ride and reduce fatigue.
- Suspension: Much like the top hardtail mountain bikes, it features a rigid suspension for climbing over steep slopes.
- Weight: The biggest downside might be the weight, but it can be beneficial for downhill riders to generate speed.
Best High-End: Omeng Fat Tires Mountain Bike
- Double suspension system: adapt to a variety of road surfaces, better suspension effect, making riding more comfortable
- Five-layer baking varnish: environmentally friendly, non-toxic, not easy to paint off
If you have the funds available to buy a high-end bike, thecould be one of the top options. It features a durable aluminum frame and SRAM drivetrain. What this means is that your drivetrain is much more comfortable and the shifts of each gear are much easier. It also features a hardtail design.
- Drivetrain: There is no denying that the drivetrain is one of the top features and it stands out due to the brand.
- Frame: The high carbon steel could be a bit heavy, but it offers some of the best durability on the market.
- Adjustability: Finally, you can adjust the seat and the tires to find your desired height for the most comfortable experience.
- Kids: Unfortunately, the bike is mostly marketed towards children, but offers safety and peace of mind to parents.
- lightweight and more durable.
- Front and rear disc brakes and quick releases.
The fat-tire bikes have a reputation for being underrated. The reason for this is the weight of the bike. However, thedoesn’t have all of the same issues and features an aluminum frame. The disc brakes are the biggest feature to the bike for optimal stopping power.
- Stopping Power: As mentioned, the bike features a dual disc brake system that will easily stop the bike downhill.
- Specialized Design: If you compare it to many of the other bikes, it features a unique design that will give you more comfort.
- Suspension: One of the top suspensions has been fitted to the bike, absorbing all the bumps and shocks.
- Price: You can find the bike at an affordable price, but the chances are high that you pay a lot for it brand new.
- Front caliper brake and rear linear pull brake combine for efficient stopping
- Cable detangler for 360° bar spins
BMX bikes are widely known for their lightweight. However, fat bikes are ideal for some of the larger riders. Mongoose has introduced the, which features 4-inch tires. However, the height is adjustable depending on the different tire sizes that you find available around you.
- BMX: For fat bikes, the BMX is never part of the top options. However, this bike is a different flavor on the table.
- Reliable Brand: Since Mongoose is the developer, you can be sure of the durability and quality of the bike.
- Price: Once again, we need to mention that it stands as one of the most affordable options on the market today.
- Not for all adults: Unfortunately, it is hard to find all the tire sizes, which makes it slightly small for adults.
- Unique Tire: mountain bike snow wide tire. Low-resistance tire pattern makes high-speed riding more brisk
- Shock-absorbing tire front fork: suspension fork handles bumps and dips, adapt to various road conditions, make riding comfortable and natural.
The LEL Beach Snowmobile Fat Bike is equipped with a mountain bike snow wide tire with a low resistance tire pattern. This pattern makes this one of the best fat tire bikes under 1000 for those interested in a brisker ride when pedaling at higher speeds.
The tire front fork was created to be shock-absorbing to allow the rider to handle various bumps and dips while enjoying a comfortable ride. This fat bike employs a 21, 24, or 27 stage shifting system. The rider can use the finger pull shifters and the rear derailleur, which helps change gears quickly and easily.
When the bike receives external impact force, it is buffered and dispersed by the spokes’ elasticity. This distributed impact helps to reduce the effect the rider feels when riding on challenging terrain.
- Frame: If you are looking for strength and toughness, this fat bike under 1000 has a frame made from carbon steel.
- Suspension: The all-terrain front fork allows this fat bike under 1000 to adapt to a variety of terrains.
- Tires: The LEL fat bike comes equipped with a unique mountain bike snow wide tire.
- Seat: The seat of this fat bike may be uncomfortable for some riders.
- Price: If you are looking for a cheap fat tire bike, this bike is more expensive than others on this list.
- Adventurer, meet the EVRYjourney FAT Tire, your two wheeled transportation to push your exploration to new extremes
- The four inch fat tires will take you over all terrains, trails, mountain, sand, snow, and with the slick tread it will roll smooth on pavement
The EVRYjourney fat bike was created for the adventurer who wants to take their exploration to new heights. The tires are the primary mode for reaching these new extremes because they are four-inch fat tires. These tires will allow the rider to cruise over most terrains, including snow, sand, mountain, trails, etc.
The manufacturer also included slick tread on these tires to help them roll smoothly on the pavement. With the ability to ride on uneven terrains, this bike also incorporated seven speeds. This bike also utilizes forward pedaling, allowing the rider to hold an ergonomic riding position.
Once a rider gets going on the terrain, he or she must have the necessary stopping power. The EVRYjourney fat bike comes equipped with front and rear disc brakes to ensure you can stop regardless of the unpredictable landscape.
- Brakes: This Sixthreezero fat bike comes equipped with front and rear disc brakes.
- Position: The ergonomic riding position might make this fat bike an excellent choice for those who suffer from knee pain.
- Gears: This bike employs seven speeds to traverse a variety of different terrains.
- Height: The height range for this particular hybrid cruiser is limited from 5 feet to 6 feet 4 inches.
- Weight: The weight limit is 300 pounds and is only appropriate for 10 to 20 miles.
- 【Equipped with Fat Tires】Fat tires Increase the contact area, Reduced forward resistance, Greater traction, more comfortable, Greatly reduce the chance of skidding.
- 【Equipped with Disc Brake】Professional and stable disc brake allows the rider to change speed freely and be more flexible when going downhill, Ensure riding safety.
Being on the list of the best fat tire bike under 1000 requires the PanAme to have tires that reduce forward resistance as well as provide greater traction. With this fat bike under 1000, the fat tires significantly reduce the possibility of skidding.
In order to reduce vibration, this fat bike is equipped with an iron shoulder shock-absorbing fork. This fork helps to reduce the impact when riding on a bumpy road. You will need to spend about 20 to 30 minutes with this fat bike to finish assembling it.
When you assemble this fat bike under 1000, you will need to install the handlebar, front wheel, pedals, and seat. You will also need to put air in the tires before you can ride this fat bike.
- Gears: This PanAme is the best fat bike under 1000 because it has 3*7 gears to allow faster gear shifting.
- Chain: The front chain gear of this fat bike is an adjustable chain with three gears.
- Durable: The high-profile double-wall alloy rims increase the durability of this fat bike under 1000.
- Assembly: This fat bike is only 85% assembled and requires about 20 to 30 minutes to complete
- Colors: This best fat bike under 1000 is only available in black and white.
- 【BASIC DATA】 Rims: inner diameter of the hub is 26 Inch, the entire wheel (including rubber tires) is 29 inch, Freewheel: 21 Speed, Brake system: Disc Brake, Tire width: 4.0", Rider Height: 5.5‘-6.2', Rider Weight: less than 440 lbs, Unisex, Handle bar is fixed height.
- 【FAT TIRE】 Fashion supersized all-terrain knobby tires, high wear resistance, strong grip, non-slip, high recognition, comfortably ride in snow, mud, dirt, or city roads.
With this best fat bike under 1000, the purchaser should measure the size of the fat bike. It supports 440 pounds but only carries people between 5’2″ and 6’0″. The wide range of height and weight makes it an appropriate fat bike for either males or females.
The knobby tires are considered fashionable on this fat bike, but they are also high wear resistance. This fat bike has a carbon steel frame making it incredibly durable. This fat bike is also resistant to tensile force and deformation due to the material used for it.
The unique appearance of this fat bike under 1000 makes it one of the best fat bike available. This fat bike’s braking system is a disc brake system while the tire width is 4″. With the choice of 21 speeds on this fat bike, it can cross a wide array of terrains. The bike does require some assembly, but all the tools needed are included in the package.
- Brakes: The braking system of this fat bike under 1000 is a disc brake system.
- Weight: This fat bike can handle 440 pounds of weight.
- Frame: The high carbon steel frame helps to increase the lifespan of this fat bike under 1000.
- Assembly: It may take you between 20 and 40 minutes to assemble this fat bike.
- Fat tire mountain bike for all-terrain adventures. Fits riders 5 feet 4 inches to 6 feet 2 inches tall
- 7-speed twist shifter makes it easy to adapt to your terrain
This Mongoose bike was designed for individuals ages six and up or people who are 4 to 5 feet in height. It comes equipped with seven speeds and Shimano rear derailleur. These items allow this fat bike to adapt to the surrounding terrain quickly.
When riding in slippery conditions, this bike’s mechanical disc brakes can provide quick and effective braking to provide extra control. With the steel hardtail frame, some users suggest that this bike can offer a strong and stable ride on any landscape.
When riding in sand and snow, the 20 X 4-inch knobby mountain tires on this fat bike gives the rider incredible stopping power and traction. This Mongoose fat bike utilizes rigid suspension with the option of 20, 24, or 26-inch wheels.
- Wheel Size: With this Mongoose fat tire bike, the rider can choose between 20 inch, 24 inch, or 26-inch wheels.
- Tires: This best fat tire bike under 1000 comes equipped with four-inch tires to handle snow and sand.
- Gears: With seven speeds and effortless shifting, this fat bike under 1000 may be the right choice for any age rider.
- Height: This fat bike is recommended for individuals who are 4 to 5 feet in height.
- Weight: This fat bike under 1000 weighs over 45 pounds.
- Steel mountain-style fat tire frame
- Rear derailleur for smooth gear changes
This entry-level fat bike is probably a better choice for males than females due to the design. This affordable bike was created to tackle all landscapes with ease. This fat bike under 1000 is considered to be a medium to large size bike.
For those not mechanically inclined, this fat bike is more straightforward to assemble than others on this list. The frame of this bike is labeled as a steel mountain-style fat tire frame. It comes with a rear derailleur to ensure smoother gear changes while riding.
The knobby 4-inch tires on this fat bike under 1000 can just about roll over anything and everything in their path. You should be in complete control with alloy rims, a-head stem, and mountain handlebars while riding off-road.
- Weight: This Mongoose fat tire bike weighs under 40 pounds.
- Brakes: This fat bike comes equipped with front and rear disc brakes.
- Durable: This bike with big tires is made from a steel alloy.
- Speeds: If you want a variety of speeds, this Mongoose fat tire bike is equipped with fewer speeds than other bikes on this list.
- Designed with 26-inch wheels, this bike fits riders 5'4" to 6'2" in height.
- 7 speeds with twist shifters and Shimano rear derailleur for all types of riding
This best fat bike is one of the most affordable ones on the list. The wheels on this bike are 26-inches while the frame is made from steel. The steel frame of this bike makes it more massive than the others. The Dolomite is an excellent choice for those who are 5’4 to 6’2 in height.
It comes equipped with twist shifters and Shimano rear derailleur. With these features as well as seven speeds, this best fat bike is ready for any type of terrain. The dual disc brakes ensure you will stop when you want to stop regardless of the landscape.
- Chain: This fat bike under 1000 utilizes a chain guard to protect its drivetrain.
- Speed: As the best fat bike, this Mongoose fat tire bike incorporates seven speeds to make it easier to adjust for elevation.
- Frame: Equipped with a steel frame, this fat bike under 1000 is durable.
- Weight: The steel frame of this fat bike is a double-edged sword because it is durable but heavy.
- Pedals: This Mongoose fat tire bike has smaller pedals, which may make it easier for your foot to slip off of them.
- 【GOOD QUALITY】Solid Frame, mountain bike frame and excellent welding technology, make it a durable and stable cruising bike.
- 【ADVANTAGE】The bike fat tire comes with 21-speeds with a Shimano rear derailleur and shift lever that can handle hilly terrains.
This best fat tire bike under 1000 is an excellent choice for those who enjoy biking in snow-covered terrain. However, it is also a good choice for sand, mud, and other rough landscapes because of its wide 4.3 X 26 inch tires.
With the 21-speed Shimano rear derailleur on this fat bike, the task of climbing hills is made much more manageable. The carbon steel frame is made for optimal performance with its lightweight and sturdy design. You can stop when necessary regardless of the terrain with this fat bike’s dual disc brakes.
When riding on rugged terrain, the front suspension fork helps ensure a comfortable ride by absorbing bumps and jolts. The ergonomic seat also helps in the effort to provide a comfortable ride. This fat bike will fit riders between 5’2 and 6’0 and up to 200 pounds.
- Suspension: This fat bike under 1000 utilizes a front suspension fork excellent for rugged landscapes.
- Brakes: With dual front and rear disc brakes, this best fat bike under 1000 can stop when needed regardless of the terrain.
- Tires: The stock tires of this fat bike are lower quality than others on this list.
- Fat tire bike designed for all-condition riding, including sand and snow 26-inch wheels fit riders 5'4" to 6'2" in height
- Aluminum mountain-style frame with hydro-formed tubing provides a durable, responsive ride
This fat bike is affordable, making it an excellent choice for those on a budget. Sand, snow, pavement, trails, mountains, or any other rough terrains are no match for this bike’s 26 X 4 inch all-terrain tires. With the hydro-formed tubing, this bike provides an even more responsive ride.
If you like to be in complete control, the Mongoose’s MTB-style frame helps ensure control even in the most challenging landscapes. This bike utilizes a sixteen-speed Shimano drivetrain to add to the entire control goal, allowing the rider to conquer mountains and other inclines easily.
For precise gear changes, this Mongoose is equipped with a Shimano trigger shifter. Do you prefer rigid suspension? If so, this bike is an excellent choice. If you are between 5’4 and 6’2, you can ride this bike comfortably.
- Frame: This Mongoose fat tire bike has a durable MTB-style aluminum frame.
- Gear: The Shimano trigger shifters on this fat bike under 1000 allows for precise gear changes.
- Handlebars: Being the best fat bike under 1000 requires a perfect fit for every rider. This fat bike falls short because the handlebars do not adjust.
- Mongoose Supersized beach cruiser 4 1/4" knobby tires
- Cruiser design frame with plenty of clearance to conquer any terrain
This best fat tire bike under 1000 is equipped with a unique LED light for safety at night. It takes a full 15 minutes to finish assembling the unit but then you are ready to tackle any terrain. This Mongoose has 4¼” knobby tires to help navigate sandy beaches.
The stainless steel frame was designed with plenty of clearance in mind making it ready to conquer a wide array of landscapes. The bike is also equipped with dual front and rear disc brakes to provide enormous stopping power providing the rider with more control in rough terrain.
- Posture: This best fat tire bike under 1000 has a design and low rise handlebars to ensure every user can achieve a comfortable posture as well as a comfortable ride.
- Frame: The frame of this Mongoose fat tire bike has a durable steel frame.
- Weight: This best fat bike tire bike under 1000 can handle up to 400 pounds.
- Seat: The reviews suggest that this fat tire’s seat needs to be upgraded for the most comfortable ride.
- Color: This bike is only available in one color, which is red.
What You Need To Look For In The Best Fat Bikes Under 1000
The selection of bikes is on the list was one of the hardest we have done. However, we consulted with a few experts to find the most important features. The following features will give you an idea of what we used for the selection process. Now, you can use these same features to find the best fat bike under 1000 for your budget.
We have not only done the mountain bikes but also integrated a few of the other top options. One of your first choices will need to be the type of bike you desire. For mountain bikes, the fat tires will help a lot, but they might be a drag for the best commuter bikes. If you want safety, the fat tire bikes offer a lot of stability regardless of the type.
Next, we moved on to the various frames that are available on the market today. The best fat tire bikes are available in a variety of different frames. One of these frames is high carbon steel. It might add a little bit of additional weight, but it excels in the durability aspect. Carbon fiber is a bit expensive, but aluminum could be a great alternative.
You don’t want to skip the stopping power of your fat tire bike. Since these bikes naturally have more weight to carry around, they build up a lot of momentum. You will need to counteract the momentum with the right brakes. Calipers might do the job for a while. However, it is best that you consider the disc brakes.
In terms of the fat bike, not all of them have the same tires. The width of the tires varies depending on the bike. If you need to deal with extreme terrains, you will be looking at wide tires. However, many of the slimmer fat tires can also get the job done while keeping the weight to a minimum. They also have less maintenance.
Additionally, one needs to consider the height of the tires. The height of the tires will be an indication of which person the bike is the best suited for. 26-inch wheels are the common standard for most people. However, the larger 29-inch tires can be beneficial for those that want a bike to keep them off the ground in the range of 6-feet.
Most bikes under 1000 are restricted to a limited number of brands. However, you might also need to consider the brand and do some research. The bike brands are rated in terms of reliability. One always wants to focus on a brand with a high-reliability factor. Mongoose is one of the top brands to consider for fat-tire bikes.
Frequently Asked Questions
When looking for the best cheap fat tire, the Mongoose Dolomite cannot be overlooked. It was designed to satisfy high standards while still being affordable. Even though it is one of the most affordable bikes on this list, it still offers the rider the best features.
The sturdy steel material makes this bike durable, which increases its lifespan. The width of the tires helps to ensure the rider gets traction allowing the bike to remain balanced. This width also makes this bike versatile because it can handle a wide array of different terrains.
When looking at the overall comfort of a bike, the pedals must be on the list. This Mongoose bike utilizes beach cruiser pedals.
These types of pedals are light and easy-to-engage. The Dolomite also offers a variety of speeds to help when climbing a steep slope. The price of this bike and all of these features make it the best cheap fat tire bicycle.
The weight might be somewhat discouraging if you are a beginner. However, the weight can make the bike be more durable. Many people believe that the bike should always be lightweight, but heavier bikes can take on tougher terrains. It will come down to the materials, but your personal preference is also important.
The main goal of the road bike is to give the user more freedom and generate more speed. However, the fat-tire bikes with a road bike design might be slightly too heavy. The downside is that these bikes will put a limit on the speeds that you can reach. Downhill performance might be a bit better due to gravity assisting in the weight.
The best fat bikes are safer for children that many of the top mountain bikes. However, they will need more power. What this means is that some of the smaller children might not be able to ride them from a very young age. It is recommended that you do some diligent research to make sure that your kid can ride with these bikes.
If you are trying to choose between a fat tire bicycle and a mountain bike, you should look at three factors: traction, weight, and comfort.
A fat tire bicycle is typically equipped with low-pressure tires. These tires are excellent at gripping the terrain. The wider tires also help to provide better balance while riding. A mountain bike does not have the climbing ability that a fat tire does. Overall, a fat tire has better traction than a mountain bike.
Some fat tire bicycles are extremely heavy. However, a lightweight carbon frame on a fat tire will provide just enough weight to allow the rider to cruise at moderate speeds. Mountain bikes are typically lighter than the average fat tire. However, with the right frame, you can find fat tires with low overall weight.
The fat tires absorb the vibrations, bumps, and shocks of a wide variety of uneven terrains, making it much more comfortable than a mountain bike.
An essential part of a fat tire bicycle is the tires. Most fat tires range from 3.7” to 5.05” with the larger tires providing more surface area. The larger surface area helps to increase stability, which in turn increases suspension and traction.
Stability, suspension, and traction are the main factors affecting how the bike handles snow, sand, and other terrains. With all of this in mind, you may ask about the best type of tires for a fat tire bicycle. The answer to this question depends upon the terrain you will be covering.
If you are riding primarily in snow or sand, you want the widest tire. However, if you plan to ride mainly on pavement, a thinner tire will make pedaling easier.
When choosing between studded or smooth fat tires, the weather is the determining factor. If you live in an area with lots of ice, studded fat tires may be an excellent investment. Climates with large temperature swings and low to moderate snowfall will produce ice.
However, if you live in a climate where it snows a lot, smooth fat tires may be the better choice. Studded tires do not have much of an effect on soft snow and will not provide any type of advantage. Besides climate, a person should also consider how the fat tire bicycle will be used.
If you off-road on the weekends but commute during the week, studded tires would be great for the off-road weekends but riding on the pavement with studded tires would cause unnecessary wear and tear.
What you need to look for in the best fat bike under 1000
When it comes to tires, the saying is the fatter the tire, the cushier the ride. A wider tire also provides more opportunities to conquer different landscapes. However, if you are a beginner with a fat tire, it is recommended to go smaller.
A smaller tire is closer to a traditional mountain bike, which may be easier to ride. When riding on soft ground, a 5” tire will provide more float than a 4” tire. On firm ground, the larger tires will be heavier, bouncier, and slower. Either size you choose, it is a good idea to adjust the tire pressure to fine-tune your experience.
Some people do not think weight would have a significant effect on your ride. This fact may be actual for regular bikes, but fat tire bicycles are a different story. When using a fat tire, you tend to take more technical rides.
For example, you may be climbing a steep incline through mud or going through a small river. You will feel the difference between a fat bicycle weighing 29 pounds versus one that weighs 49 pounds. Overall, you want a lighter fat bicycle. However, it is essential to point out that more lightweight bikes tend to be more expensive than heavier ones.
Most fat tire bikes offer two types of brakes, which are disc and rim. If you have an entry-level model, it typically has rim brakes. This type of brakes grabs the rim of the wheel with pads. The benefits of rim brakes are they are economical and you can see the pad wearing out. However, they tend to wear away the wheel rim, causing a loss of stopping power.
With disc brakes, a brake rotor is attached to the wheel hub. This disc is gripped by the brakes to provide stopping power. One of the best benefits of disc brakes is they will self-adjust as the pad wears out, which offers more consistent braking. The disc is easy to replace and affordable.
When looking at fat tire bikes, the proper size is vital for your safety and comfort. This fact means that fat tires are not a one size fits all, so you should look for the available adjustments. To match your unique size and shape, you should look for bikes with adjustable seats, handlebars, and front shocks.
Most seats can be adjusted to fit your height. However, when you sit on a bike, your feet should rest comfortably on the ground. When adjusting handlebars, you should place your hands in a position comfortable for braking and shifting. The outer edge of your thumb should be aligned to your armpit.
Your front shock should be adjusted to cater to your weight. Most bikes can be adjusted using a pressure gauge or suspension pump.
If you are looking for a fat tire bike, you have come to the right place. While there are many more available, they tend to be very expensive or hard to find. We would love to read some of your comments and see if you have the best fat bikes under 1000 dollars that we could add to the list.
- 1 Best Fat Bikes Under 1000 On The Market Today
- 2 Best Fat Bikes Under 1000: Mongoose Juneau 26-Inch Fat Tire Bike
- 3 Best High-End: Omeng Fat Tires Mountain Bike
- 4 Most Underrated Bike: TTBOO GORTAT New Bicycle Mountain Bike
- 5 Best Fat Tire BMX Bike: Mongoose 2019 20″ Outerlimit BMX Bike
- 6 LEL Beach Snowmobile Fat Tire Bike
- 7 Sixthreezero EVRYjourney Fat Tire Bike
- 8 PanAme Fat Tire Bike
- 9 Outroad Mountain Fat Tire Bike
- 10 Mongoose Argus Fat Tire Bike
- 11 Mongoose Malus Fat Tire Bike
- 12 Mongoose 2019 Dolomite Men’s Fat Tire Bike
- 13 Max4out Fat Tire Bike
- 14 Mongoose Juneau 26-Inch Fat Tire Bike
- 15 Mongoose Hitch Men’s Fat Tire Bike
- 16 What You Need To Look For In The Best Fat Bikes Under 1000
- 17 Frequently Asked Questions
- 18 What you need to look for in the best fat bike under 1000
- 19 Conclusion